Defended Theses

2018

Shuriken Way – An Android Puzzle Game
Anton Tšugunov
Mr Tšugunov has created a challenging mobile platformer-puzzle game with a really simple mechanic of throwing a shuriken. The mechanic consists of only tapping on the screen to throw the shuriken in the direction it faces. The designed 9 levels include rotating platforms and walls that the player needs to use correctly to progress as quickly as possible. The game was built with Android Java and Mr Tšugunov has used low-level OpenGL techniques to ensure good performance and power consumption on mobile devices. The game is unique in its own regard as evidenced by comparisons with similar games on the Google Play market.

Poster.
Thesis.
thesis-shuriken-way
thesis-type-app
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

Using Mirrors in a Computer Game
Kerstin Äkke
Mirrors and reflection rendering is an interesting subject in computer graphics. However mirrors have rarely been used in actual computer game mechanics. In her thesis Ms Äkke has categorized potential mirror uses for game mechanics into three categories: puzzles based on reflection, mirrors as portals and reflection interactions. Several mechanics are proposed in each category and they are analyzed based on game design theory by J. Schell and M. Sicart.
One of the mechanics is implemented into a puzzle game with 5 different levels. The game consists of the player moving and rotating different pieces of a shape around the level. The goal is to assemble the full shape in the reflection of a mirror. Mr Äkke’s game is designed and evaluated based on the GameFlow model by P. Sweetser and P. Wyeth. The result is a promising new mechanic and a challenging computer game prototype with uniquely designed levels.

Thesis.
thesis-mirrors
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

Delta Building Visualisation and Optimisation
Aleksander Nikolajev
The Institute of Computer Science desires an interesting visualization to be shown in the video walls of the new academic Delta building. During his thesis Mr Nikolajev has created a visualization of the mentioned Delta building and visualizes the 2000 actors that move and act throughout the visualized building. Those actors depict the students, visitors and educators and their movement will be controlled by the building’s sensors.
Mr Nikolajev has designed the color palette of the visualization, created furniture models in the different rooms and optimized both the building’s 3D model and the numerous actors such that the visualization would run at no less than 30 frames per second. The visualization was created with the Unity game engine and Mr Nikolajev has utilized several of its optimizations in addition to being careful with code and camera placement. The result is an aesthetically pleasing visualization to be viewed from video walls.

Thesis.
thesis-deltavis
thesis-type-app
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

Delta Building Environment Visualization
Andrei Voitenko
The visualization of the Delta building planned to be shown on the video walls in the same building should provide useful information for the passerby students. Mr Voitenko has created interfaces for the project with three real-time services: the Cumulocity platform for getting live person counts for each room, the Study Information System for fetching the schedule of courses, and a weather service for displaying the current weather around the building.
The schedule is also displayed next to the 3D visualization and students can easily see what activities currently take place in each room. The weather visualization around the building includes rain and snowfall with puddles and snowdrifts. The sunlight follows the actual physical direction of the Sun throughout the year and reacts to cloudy weather. The resulting visualization provides useful information and mood-shaping effects to be viewed from video walls.

Thesis.
thesis-deltaui
thesis-type-app
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

Volumetric Cloud Rendering
Jaagup Kuhi
Volumetric rendering in real time has only now become a possibility in computer games. This is evidenced by a volumetric cloudscape rendering solution called Nubis, which is featured in a computer game Horizon: Zero Dawn. Mr Kuhi has in his thesis researched the different cloud rendering techniques and re-created the volumetric cloud rendering results comparable to the Nubis system.
The thesis describes several types of noise (Perlin, Worley, Curl) and their use in creating realistic clouds. Mr Kuhi also describes the physical phenomena like Beer’s law, Henyey-Greenstein phase function and the in-scattering of light he simulates when rendering the clouds. Stochastic ray-marching is used to create very realistic-looking clouds with real-time performance suitable for use in computer games.

Thesis.
thesis-clouds
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Jaanus Jaggo

 

Volumetric Fog Rendering
Siim Raudsepp
Rendering believable fog can create nice mood-setting results in computer games as evidenced for example by the game Silent Hill. Mr Raudsepp has delved into volumetric fog rendering theory and followed many online tutorials to create a volumetric fog rendering solution in the Unity game engine. Mr Raudsepp’s solution allows for more parameters and features compared to other solutions. For example the results in this thesis can produce animated fog based on noise functions. While the solution does not outperform other solutions, it is a good research into the possibilities volumetric rendering can offer.

Poster.
Thesis.
thesis-clouds
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Jaanus Jaggo

 

Procedural Generation of 2D Creatures
Madis Janno
Procedural creature generation has been done in several computer games, but usually consists of a stochastic combination of creature parts. In his thesis Mr Janno creates 2D creatures from mathematical shape influence functions called metaballs. This kind of approach has only been done in the 3D computer game Spore.
Mr Janno has created a full system of creature generation, which is easily applicable with any modern graphics library. The creatures are generated based on a skeleton and the resulting procedural mesh is also skinned. Mr Janno has also included texture and normal map generation in his solution and the results are positively creppy-looking creatures.

Live.
Thesis.
thesis-creatures
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

Player Emotional Behavior Dependency on Fair Video Game Design Factors and External Conditions
Richardas Keršis
In computer game design there is always a question of balance, especially if the game is multiplayer. Mr Keršis has tried to analyze if playing a fair game and losing results in more negative emotion (anger and aggression) than losing in an unfair game would. For this he developed a 2 player PvP game and analyzed different game design factors and external conditions that can make the game seem unfair to the players. The different factors are then evaluated based on a study on a group of players playing the developed game.

Thesis.
thesis-emotion
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Margus Luik

 

Real-Time Strategy on Platforms Game Design
Silver Kirotar
In this thesis the aspects of real-time strategy and platformer game genres are analyzed and combined into a single game. Mr Kirotar starts by bringing out the key mechanics of both genres and researches what games have tried to combine them before. Then he proceeds to designing his own game based on the found results. The designed and implemented game Queen Aerisilium includes RTS-like base-building and platforms the player needs to reach with their units. The main mechanic of platform traversal is via building and using bridges between them. The designed and developed prototype solution shows that such a game would be possible.

Thesis.
thesis-rtsop
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

Infinite Procedural Infrastructured World Generation
Andreas Sepp
Mr Sepp has continued on the procedural land generation theme he discovered during his Bachelor studies. This time he has taken inspiration from the Estonian landscapes and infrastructure developed by humans. In his thesis he describes an infinite procedural world generation algorithm that includes about 10 different advanced computer graphics techniques. The generation starts by generating and culling a highway graph, which is then used for city placement (among other things). The different areas inside and outside the cities are divided into specific regions and given corresponding types like forest-areas, farmlands, groves. There are many such divisions into areas inspired by real-life phenomena.
In the final developed application of the algorithm you can drive around in real-time and discover as much of the infinite procedural world as you like. There are also road signs to guide you to the next city or village.

Poster.
Thesis.
thesis-procterrain
thesis-type-theory
MSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel
Eero Vainikko

 

Edge Chamfering Algorithm
Diana Algma
Algorithms for automatically manipulating geometry in a purposeful way are difficult. In her thesis Ms Algma has created an algorithm for chamfering edges of 3D meshes. Chamfering is a technique similar to beveling, but only creates one very small bevel for hard edges. This gives the 3D models a more real-life look as in reality there are no infinitely sharp hard edges on objects. The algorithm works on all sorts of models and allows artists or developers to drastically improve the look of their application.
In addition Ms Algma has improved her algorithm to work on textured models and account for the UV mapping. You can read all about that from her Computer Graphics Project page.

Poster.
Thesis.
thesis-chamfer
thesis-type-theory
MSc
sprv Jaanus Jaggo

 

Real-Time Cave Destruction Using 3D Voronoi
Marko Täht
Procedural description of meshes creates more immersion in computer games. In his thesis Mr Täht has created a solution for destruction simulation by using 3D Voronoi diagrams. The thesis describes different approaches for 3D mesh destruction and then delves into algorithms that allow real-time (re-)generation of 3D Voronoi diagrams. Methods for dynamically modifying the Voronoi diagram and updating the rendered mesh are discussed, implemented and tested for performance.
Mr Täht has also created a demo application of the algorithm, where you can dig through a cave with a laser gun. Each time you fire at the cave wall, a section of the Voronoi diagram and the mesh recalculated. You can read more about that from his Computer Graphics Project page.

Poster.
Thesis.
thesis-cavedestruction
thesis-type-theory
MSc
sprv Jaanus Jaggo

 

NPC AI System Based on Gameplay Recordings
Sercan Altundaş
In virtual reality games the current player base is low because the technology has not yet become that mainstream. Because of that Mr Altundaş has taken for his work the creation of AI bots in the virtual reality arena shooter game Vrena. The thesis describes the research that has been done in the game AI field and proposes a solution to create an AI based on gameplay logs of real players. The different play sessions record player the parameters such as the headset and controller locations to give the resulting bots a more life-like feel. The result is the bots that behave according to the logged session information and complete the game goals as a regular player would.

Thesis.
thesis-vrenabot
thesis-type-app
MSc
sprv Margus Luik

 

2017

Algorithm for Portals Between Environments and Using it in a Computer Game
Kalle Ever
Mr Ever has created a really cool puzzle platformer game for his Bachelor’s thesis. The game’s unique value is the use of portals, which lead to different environments. There are 5 different environments designed: Reality A, Reality B, 0g, Slow Reality and Alive Reality. The thesis describes the design choices for each of them. Using different realities and a portal device, the players can solve 27 different puzzles to progress. The puzzles include buttons for opening doors, boxes to place on the buttons and also several types of traps to avoid. During the thesis work Mr Ever tested his game on several players and improved the mechanics. The game can be downloaded together with his thesis and includes about 1.5h of play time. You can also check out the development log from his Computer Graphics Project page.

Poster.
Thesis.

thesis-kalle-1-1061x570
thesis-type-app
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel
Margus Luik

 

Impossible Geometry in a Node-Based World Ivo Voika
In this thesis the concept of impossible geometry is explored. Mr Voika describes for example the Penrose staircase and games like Echochrome, which makes use of the impossible geometry as a game mechanic. The majority of his thesis describes how to implement impossible geometries using a node-based approach to describe the game world. Graphs are shown that illustrate 3 different types of impossible geometries: shortcuts between areas, endless corridors and overlaping rooms. All of those are also implemented by Mr Voika in the program accompanying the thesis. Several design and implementation restrictions are described for those who want to create such worlds. Also each impossible geometry type features descriptions of possible game mechanic designs proposed by Mr Voika.

Thesis.

thesis-ivo-2
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

Creating an Artificial Intelligence for a Turn-Based Strategy Game L-put
Mattias Lass
Turn-based strategy games are potential area of use for artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. In his Bachelor’s thesis Mr Lass has created a small turn-based strategy game – L-put. The game features mechanics similar to that of Heroes of Might and Magic games. The game map is composed of hexagonal grid and in the thesis two possible coordinate systems are described for creating a game on such a structure. Both of the coordinate systems have pros and cons, which are explained in the thesis. After that Mr Lass proceeds to trying out different AI algorithms for creating a computer-controlled enemy to play against the human players. Min-max, alpha-beta pruning and the Monte Carlo algorithms are tested and the results described.

Thesis.

thesis-mattias-1
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Jaanus Jaggo

 

Virtual Reality Game Design Analysis Based on Tribocalypse VR Jens-Stefan Mikson
Mr Mikson has lead a 14-member development team in the course 6 months in order to create a virtual reality (VR) game Tribocalypse VR. The thesis describes many of the unique challenges of VR and game development for the HTC Vive platform. As the fields are relatively new, Mr Mikson’s thesis provides a very beneficial analysis for anyone aiming to develop a VR game. Important game development areas like environment and level design, user interface and interactable items are explored. Different features and solutions in those areas are analyzed with the important concepts of immersion and clarity. Mr Mikson was in an unique position to tackle the described design problems with his team and the thesis can now serve as a guide for all VR developers (incl Mr Mikson and his team) in the future.

Thesis.
Developer’s Guide

thesis-jens-1-1
thesis-type-app
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

3D Model Viewer for Mediawiki Software Harri Alasi
Mr Alasi has in his Bachelor’s thesis created a 3D model viewer plugin for Wikimedia software. That plugin allows users of Wikimedia software to view 3D STL models on wiki pages via an interactive 3D viewer. Just like currently there are pictures in wiki articles, that plugin allows the addition of 3D models to the articles. Thesis describes the different STL sub-formats and the issues one faces, when parsing an STL file. Key aspects in the thesis tackle the problems of how to intuitively allow users to control the actual 3D view and how to show models with different spatial dimensions.

Thesis.

thesis-wikiviewer
thesis-type-app
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel,
Ivo Kruusamägi

 

EyeTal – A Fully Eye-Controlled Map Editor Mark Laane
In this Master’s thesis Mr Laane has created a user interface, which is 100% controlled by the user’s eye gaze. While partially eye-controlled interfaces have been made in the past, creating a fully eye-controlled interface is a novel and challenging goal. The actual solution has restricted access because the application was made for AS Datel and includes trade secrets. Still you can read about the eye tracking and it’s challenges from the first chapters of Mr Laane’s thesis. Furthermore you can follow Mr Laane’s progress for creating a general open-source framework for eye-controllable GUI from his Computer Graphics Project page.

Thesis.

thesis-mark-1
thesis-type-app
MSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel

 

WebGLadiator Game Engine for Web Developers
Mohamad Qaddura
In his Master’s thesis Mr Qaddura has created a new game engine for web developers. The WebGLadiator engine is built using the Pixi.js library for 2D graphics, the Tween.js library for animations and RX.js for input events. Game logic coding in WebGLadiator is done using TypeScript and graphical layouts can be configured with VFL. Mr Qaddura explains the Entity-Component-System paradigm used in his engine as well as different other design patterns used to make the game developer’s life easier. In the end, use of the engine is demonstrated via building a Tic-Tac-Toe game.

Thesis.

thesis-webgladiator
thesis-type-app
MSc
sprv Margus Luik

 

Introductory Game Development and Programming Course Materials
Jaan Janno
Teaching introductory game development and programming in an online course can be difficult. In this Master’s thesis the Let’s Make Computer Games (Teeme ise arvutimänge) e-course is improved. The thesis starts by describing the current learning materials, which have been used to teach game development to thousands of Estonian secondary school students across the country. Next Mr Janno has identified several shortcomings and problems with those materials. For example the use of outdated software or the lack of computer graphics content. Then a number of solutions have been considered and taken into use. The bulk of the work includes 35 new educational videos, which include additional topics like the game loop and update patterns. Mr Janno also created several more engaging exercises. One of which has the pupil implement an adventure game with choices and images. The quality of the materials and the revisions is also assessed in the thesis.

Thesis.

thesis-jaan-2
thesis-type-teaching
MSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel
Ljubov Jaanuska

2016

Procedural Terrain Generation Andreas Sepp
Mr Sepp created a Minecraft-like land generation algorithm. He researched different noise generation algorithms (MDA, value, gradient, Perlin, simplex) in order to find the best one for the heightmap of his land. Ultimately he used Simplex noise for the initial heightmap, rainfall and temperature. Based on the last two he created different biomes in a Voronoi diagram. Corresponding to the biom type the actual height of the land is then modified. Heights on the edges of biomes are blended together smoothly. Lastly the vegetation is also placed using noise and biome type.

Thesis.

thesis-procland
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel
Ahti Peder

 

Procedural Generation of Cities Kristjan Perli
Mr Perli researched 3 different procedural city generation algorithms described in his thesis. Parts from each of those algorithms are chosen and an unique city generation algorithm is designed. Roadmap generation is done in two steps: First the main roads are generated by connecting population dense regions, creating also bridges if necessary. Secondly, streets are generated aside the main roads also based on the population density. Then loop finding algorithms are applied to create plots for buildings. The buildings themselves have a varying height and structure based on the population density. Shape is determined by the plot’s shape. Finally different textures are mapped and applied on the buildings. This entire thing works in a web browser in JavaScript with the Three.js library.

Thesis.
Live.

thesis-proccity
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel
Ahti Peder

 

Tutorial for Making a Game in Unreal Engine 4 Thomas-Bairam Toodo
Mr Toodo has created a learning tutorial for one of the most popular game engines: Unreal Engine 4. The tutorial itself is in Estonian and is meant for students and learners who do not understand English enough to follow many other already existing tutorials on the web. In the tutorial there are many components of Unreal Engine 4 covered, mainly: Level Editor, Material Editor, Blueprint, Matinee Editor, UMG UI. Thesis also provides a number of Estonian translations for UE4 specific keywords (like funktsioonikastike and ühendusklemm). During the tutorial the learner creates a small 3D third-person platformer game.

Thesis.

thesis-unreal
thesis-type-teaching
BSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel
(Ats Kurvet)

 

Programming Patterns in Computer Games Course Margus Luik
As games are usually quite code-wise large software projects, programming them neatly is very important for a computer scientist. Mr Luik created an entire 3 ECTS credits course do teach that to our students. In the course many programming / design patterns are covered and students learn how to use them to solve programming problems in a good fashion. Most of the work in the course devised by Mr Luik is done on the same Unity project and in the end students implement several cool features in that game project: movement, command recording and replaying, Snake-game-like following, teleportation, procedural level generation etc.

Thesis.

thesis-progpatterns
thesis-type-teaching
MSc
sprv Raimond Tunnel
Dietmar Pfahl

2015

Computer Graphics Learning Materials Raimond Tunnel
Mr Tunnel’s Master’s thesis has three main focus points. First a proposal for a computer graphics course is formulated and different learning environments covered. Based on that it is determined that a custom learning environment called CGLearn is necessary. The thesis describes the architecture and implementation of the named environment. Secondly, numerous computer graphics learning materials (text, interactive examples, tasks, flashcards) are created. The thesis concludes with the first conduction of the designed and created course by the author and the results of that conduction.

Thesis.

thesis-cglearn
thesis-type-app
MSc
sprv Konstantin Tretyakov
Anne Villems

2012

Procedural Tree Generation Raimond Tunnel
In his Bachelor’s thesis Mr Tunnel mainly focused on Aristid Lindenmayer’s L-systems for generating self-similar objects. The thesis describes L-systems in the context of formal grammars. After that the overview of a C++ implementation is given. Then some graphics optimizations are described. The thesis brings out several sets of rules for creating trees with an L-system and analyzes the results. In the end L-system trees are compared to trees generated via another algorithm by Paul Kruszewsky.

Thesis.

thesis-trees
thesis-type-theory
BSc
sprv Konstantin Tretyakov
Sven Laur